10-K
Table of Contents
falseP1YP3YP3YP3YP1YP60YP6YP7YP5Y20200000097210FYMAMAP3YDuring the year ended December 31, 2019, Teradyne paid $30.8 million and $3.8 million of contingent consideration for the earn-outs in connection with the acquisitions of MiR and Universal Robots A/S (“Universal Robots”), respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the fair value of contingent consideration for the earn-out in connection with the acquisition of MiR was decreased by $22.2 million primarily due to a decrease in forecasted revenues partially offset by the impact from modification of the earn-out structure. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the fair value of contingent consideration for the earn-out in connection with the acquisition of AutoGuide was increased by $3.0 million primarily due to an increase in forecasted revenuesDuring the year ended December 31, 2020, Teradyne paid $8.9 million of contingent consideration for the earn-out in connection with the acquisition of MiR.During the year ended December 31, 2020, the fair value of contingent consideration for the earn-out in connection with the acquisition of AutoGuide was decreased by $19.7 million primarily due to a decrease in forecasted revenues. Teradyne has received a letter from the sellers of AutoGuide alleging non-compliance with the earn-out provisions of the AutoGuide acquisition agreement. Teradyne disputes the allegation of non-compliance. The ultimate amount of contingent consideration for the earn-outs in connection with the acquisition of AutoGuide may be affected by the outcome of the dispute. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the fair value of contingent consideration for the earn-out in connection with the acquisition of MiR was decreased by $3.5 million primarily due to a decrease in forecasted revenues. The carrying value represents the bifurcated debt component only, while the fair value is based on quoted market prices for the convertible note which includes the equity conversion features.Revenues attributable to a country are based on location of customer site.As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, long-lived assets attributable to Singapore were $62.5 million and $35.2 million, respectively.Restructuring and other includes a $10.0 million gain for the decrease in the fair value of the AutoGuide and MiR contingent consideration liabilities, partially offset by $1.4 million of acquisition related compensation and expenses and $0.7 million of severance charges related to headcount reductions primarily in Industrial Automation and Semiconductor Test.Restructuring and other includes a $29.9 million charge for the increase in the fair value of the AutoGuide contingent consideration liability, a $4.0 million contract termination settlement charge, $3.1 million of acquisition related compensation and expense and $0.8 million of other expenses, partially offset by a $0.6 million gain for the decrease in the fair value of MiR contingent consideration liability.Teradyne recorded pension and post retirement net actuarial (gains) losses of $(0.1) million, $2.7 million, $7.7 million for the second, third and fourth quarter in 2020, respectively. See Note B: “Accounting Policies” for a discussion of Teradyne’s accounting policy.Restructuring and other includes a $27.2 million gain for the decrease in the fair value of AutoGuide contingent consideration liability, and a $1.1 million gain for the decrease in acquisition related compensation liability, partially offset by $0.5 million recorded for employee severance charges primarily in Industrial Automation.Restructuring and other includes a $15.3 million gain for the decrease in the fair value adjustment to the AutoGuide acquisition contingent consideration liability, and a $0.9 million gain for the decrease in acquisition related compensation liability, partially offset by $1.1 million of employee severance charges primarily in Industrial Automation.Restructuring and other includes a $3.0 million fair value adjustment to increase the MiR acquisition contingent consideration, $1.3 million of acquisition related expenses and compensation and $0.8 million of employee severance charges.Restructuring and other includes a $11.7 million gain for the decrease in the fair value of the MiR contingent consideration liability, partially offset by $0.8 million of employee severance charges and $0.5 million of acquisition related expenses and compensation. Restructuring and other includes a $7.8 million gain for the decrease in the fair value of MiR contingent consideration liability, partially offset by $0.8 million of employee severance charges and $0.5 million of acquisition related expenses and compensation. Restructuring and other includes a $5.8 million gain for the decrease in the fair value adjustment to the MiR acquisition contingent consideration, partially offset by a $3.0 million fair value adjustment to increase the AutoGuide acquisition contingent consideration, $0.5 million of employee severance charges and $0.2 million of acquisition related expenses and compensation.Teradyne recorded pension and post retirement net actuarial losses of $7.7 million for the fourth quarter in 2019. 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Table of Contents
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
(MARK ONE)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-06462
TERADYNE, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
MASSACHUSETTS
 
04-2272148
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
600 RIVERPARK DRIVE
NORTH READING, MASSACHUSETTS
 
01864
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (978370-2700
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.125 per share
 
TER
 
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes
 
☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes
 
☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (check one):
Large accelerated filer ☒    Accelerated
filer ☐    Non-accelerated
filer 
    Smaller reporting company      Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 26, 2020 was approximately $10.6 billion based upon the closing price of the registrant’s Common Stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market on that date.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s only class of Common Stock as of February 
16
, 2021 was 166,694,772 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement in connection with its 2021 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
 
 
 

Table of Contents
TERADYNE, INC.
INDEX
 
 
  
 
  
Page No.
 
 
Item 1.
  
  
 
1
 
Item 1A.
  
  
 
13
 
Item 1B.
  
  
 
25
 
Item 2.
  
  
 
25
 
Item 3.
  
  
 
25
 
Item 4.
  
  
 
25
 
 
 
Item 5.
  
  
 
26
 
Item 6.
  
  
 
26
 
Item 7.
  
  
 
26
 
Item 7A.
  
  
 
44
 
Item 8.
  
  
 
46
 
Item 9.
  
  
 
108
 
Item 9A.
  
  
 
108
 
Item 9B.
  
  
 
109
 
 
 
Item 10.
  
  
 
110
 
Item 11.
  
  
 
110
 
Item 12.
  
  
 
110
 
Item 13.
  
  
 
110
 
Item 14.
  
  
 
110
 
 
 
Item 15.
  
  
 
111
 
Item 16.
  
  
 
112
 
 
  
  
 
118
 

Table of Contents
TERADYNE, INC.
FORM
10-K
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form
10-K
contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act. When used herein, the words “will,” “would,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “expect,” “estimate,” “project,” “intend,” “may,” “see,” “target” and other words and terms of similar meaning are intended to identify forward-looking statements although not all forward looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” of this annual report on Form
10-K
and elsewhere, and in other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements which reflect management’s analysis only as of the date hereof and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated or implied. Teradyne assumes no obligation to update these forward-looking statements for any reason, except as may be required by law.
PART I
 
Item 1:
Business
Teradyne, Inc. (“Teradyne”) was founded in 1960 and is a leading global supplier of automation equipment for test and industrial applications.
We design, develop, manufacture and sell automatic test systems used to test semiconductors, wireless products, data storage and complex electronics systems in many industries including consumer electronics, wireless, automotive, industrial, computing, communications, and aerospace and defense industries. Our industrial automation products include collaborative robotic arms, autonomous mobile robots and advanced robotic control software used by global manufacturing, logistics and light industrial customers to improve quality, increase manufacturing and material handling efficiency and decrease manufacturing and logistics costs. Our automatic test equipment and industrial automation products and services include:
 
 
 
semiconductor test (“Semiconductor Test”) systems;
 
 
 
storage and system level test (“Storage Test”) systems, defense/aerospace (“Defense/Aerospace”) test instrumentation and systems, and circuit-board test and inspection (“Production Board Test”) systems (collectively these products represent “System Test”);
 
 
 
wireless test (“Wireless Test”) systems; and
 
 
 
industrial automation (“Industrial Automation”) products.
The market for our test products is concentrated with a limited number of significant customers accounting for a substantial portion of the purchases of test equipment. A few customers drive significant demand for our products both through direct sales and sales to the customer’s supply partners. We expect that sales of our test products will continue to be concentrated with a limited number of significant customers for the foreseeable future.
We have grown our Industrial Automation business through acquisitions, including Mobile Industrial Robots A/S (“MiR”), a leading maker of collaborative autonomous mobile robots (“AMRs”) for industrial applications, in 2018 and AutoGuide, LLC (“AutoGuide”), a maker of high payload AMRs, in 2019. The market for our Industrial Automation products is dependent on the adoption of new automation technologies by large
 
1

Table of Contents
manufacturers as well as small and medium enterprises (SMEs) throughout the world. In 2020, our Industrial Automation businesses were negatively impacted by the global industrial downturn as well as the
COVID-19
pandemic.
In 2020, revenue in our test businesses exceeded our plan as a result of Semiconductor Test demand by our largest customer, early 5G test investments and strength in our System Test businesses. The revenue of our Industrial Automation business was below our plan. In 2021, we expect strong momentum in our test businesses and a return to growth for Industrial Automation.
Our strategy is to focus on profitably growing market share in our test businesses through the introduction of differentiated products that target growth segments and accelerating growth through continued investment in our Industrial Automation businesses. We plan to execute on our strategy while balancing capital allocations between returning capital to our shareholders through dividends and stock repurchases and using capital for opportunistic acquisitions.
Investor Information
We are a Massachusetts corporation incorporated on September 23, 1960. We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”). We file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file documents electronically.
You can access financial and other information, including the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, our Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Conduct, by clicking the Investors link on our web site at www.teradyne.com. We make available, free of charge, copies of our filings with the SEC, including our annual reports on Form
10-K,
quarterly reports on Form
10-Q,
current reports on Form
8-K
and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act through our web site as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC.
Products
Semiconductor Test
We design, manufacture, sell and support Semiconductor Test products and services on a worldwide basis. The test systems we provide are used both for wafer level and device package testing. These chips are used in automotive, industrial, communications, consumer, smartphones, and computer and electronic game applications, among others. Semiconductor devices span a broad range of functionality, from very simple
low-cost
devices such as appliance microcontrollers, operational amplifiers or voltage regulators to complex digital signal processors and microprocessors as well as memory devices. Semiconductor Test products and services are sold to integrated device manufacturers (“IDMs”) that integrate the fabrication of silicon wafers into their business, “Fabless” companies that outsource the manufacturing of silicon wafers, “Foundries” that cater to the processing and manufacturing of silicon wafers, and semiconductor assembly and test providers (“OSATs”) that provide test and assembly services for the final packaged devices to both Fabless companies and IDMs. Fabless companies perform the design of integrated circuits without manufacturing capabilities, and use Foundries for wafer manufacturing and OSATs for test and assembly. These customers obtain the overall benefit of comprehensively testing devices and reducing the total costs associated with testing by using our Semiconductor Test systems to:
 
 
 
improve and control product quality;
 
 
 
measure and improve product performance;
 
 
 
reduce time to market; and
 
 
 
increase production yields.
 
2

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Our FLEX Test Platform architecture advances our core technologies to produce test equipment that is designed for high efficiency multi-site testing. Multi-site testing involves the simultaneous testing of many devices in parallel. Leading semiconductor manufacturers are using multi-site testing to significantly improve their “Cost of Test” economics. The FLEX Test Platform architecture addresses customer requirements through the following key capabilities:
 
 
 
A high efficiency multi-site architecture that reduces tester overhead such as instrument setup, synchronization and data movement, and signal processing;
 
 
 
The
IG-XL
software operating system which provides fast program development, including instant conversion from single to multi-site test; and
 
 
 
Broad technology coverage by instruments designed to cover the range of test parameters, coupled with a universal slot test head design that allows easy test system reconfiguration to address changing test needs.
FLEX Test Platform purchases are made by IDMs, OSATs, Foundries and Fabless customers. The FLEX Test Platform has become a widely used test solution at OSATs by providing versatile testers that can handle the widest range of devices, allowing OSATs to leverage their capital investments. The broad consumer, automotive and broadband markets have historically driven most of the device volume growth in the semiconductor industry. These markets include smartphones, cell phones, tablets, set top boxes, HDTVs, game controllers, computer graphics, and automotive controllers to name a few. These end use markets continue to be drivers for the FLEX Test Platform family of products because they require a wide range of technologies and instrument coverage. In 2019, we introduced our next generation UltraFlex
Plus
tester, the newest member of the UltraFlex family, UltraFlex
Plus
uses the new PACE
TM
architecture to deliver superior economics and fast time to market for complex digital devices. The FLEX Test Platform has an installed base of more than 8,000 systems.
Our J750
test system shares the
IG-XL
software environment with the family of FLEX Test Platform systems. The J750 is designed to address the highest volume semiconductor devices, such as microcontrollers, that are central to the functionality of almost every consumer electronics product, from small appliances to automobiles. J750 test systems combine compact packaging, high throughput and ease of production test. We extended the J750 platform technology to create the IP750 Image Sensor
test system. The IP750 is focused on testing image sensor devices used in smartphones and other imaging products. We have continued to invest in the J750 platform with new instrument releases that bring new capabilities to existing market segments and expand the J750 platform to new devices that include high end microcontrollers and the latest generation of cameras. The J750 platform has an installed base of over 5,900 systems.
Our Magnum platform addresses the requirements of mass production test of memory devices for flash and DRAM memory. Flash and DRAM memory are widely used core building blocks in modern electronic products finding wide application in consumer, industrial, and computing equipment. Magnum V, the newest member of the family, is a next generation memory test solution designed for parallel memory test in the flash, DRAM and multi-chip package markets. In 2019, we introduced a high-speed DRAM test version of our Magnum platform called Magnum EPIC giving us full product coverage of the memory test market. The Magnum platform has an installed base of over 3,200 systems.
Our ETS platform is used by semiconductor manufacturers and assembly and test subcontractors, primarily in the analog/mixed signal markets that cover more cost sensitive applications. Our proprietary SmartPin
technology enables high efficiency multi-site testing, on an individual test system, permitting greater test throughput. Semiconductors tested by ETS platform systems are incorporated into a wide range of products in historically high-growth markets, including mobile devices, video/multimedia products, automotive electronics, computer peripherals, and notebook and desktop computers. The newest products from the platform include the
ETS-88,
a high performance multi-site production test system designed to test a wide variety of high volume commodity and precision devices, and the
ETS-800,
a high performance multi-site production test system to test
 
3

Table of Contents
high complexity power devices in automotive, industrial and consumer applications. The ETS platform has an installed base of over 5,600 systems.
Lemsys SA, which we acquired in January 2019, has added a high power discrete device tester to our portfolio of semiconductor testers. Lemsys’s testers address the emerging segment for high power discrete devices used in electric vehicles, wind and solar power generation and other high power industrial applications.
System Test
Our System Test segment is comprised of three business units: Storage Test, Defense/Aerospace, and Production Board Test.
Storage Test
The Storage Test business unit addresses the high throughput, automated manufacturing test requirements of hard disk drive (“HDD”) and solid state disk (“SSD”) manufacturers and semiconductor manufacturers. Our products address the client and enterprise storage markets. The client market is driven by the needs of desktop, laptop, and external HDD and SSD storage products. The enterprise market is driven by the needs of data centers and cloud storage. In 2017, we developed a system level test product for the semiconductor production market, called Titan. Titan is used to test devices following wafer and package test. The business unit’s products lead in addressing customer requirements related to factory density, throughput and thermal performance.
Defense/Aerospace
We are a leading provider of high performance test systems, subsystems, instruments and service for the defense and aerospace markets. Our test products are used to ensure the readiness of military and commercial aerospace electronics systems. New programs, such as tactical aircraft and missile systems, as well as upgrade programs, continue to fuel the demand for high performance test systems in this market. Our test products are well-suited to the demands of defense/aerospace electronics manufacturers and repair depots worldwide. Our leadership in this market is underscored by our success with major Department of Defense programs across all U.S. military service branches and many allied defense services worldwide.
Production Board Test
Our test systems are used by electronics manufacturers worldwide to perform
In-Circuit-Test
(“ICT”) and device programming of printed circuit board assemblies. Fast, accurate and cost-effective test capabilities are hallmark features of our Test Station and Spectrum ICT product families. We offer the Test Station in
off-line
and automated
in-line
configurations. The automated
in-line
configurations address the growing requirements for automating production lines for high volume applications, such as automotive electronics.
Wireless Test
Our Wireless Test business operates under the LitePoint brand name and provides test solutions utilized in the development and manufacturing of wireless devices and modules. The world’s leading makers of smartphones, tablets, notebooks, laptops, peripherals, and
Internet-of-Things
(“IoT”) devices rely on LitePoint technology to ensure their products get into consumer hands with high quality and high efficiency.
LitePoint hardware and software wireless test solutions are used in test insertions that span design verification to high volume manufacturing and are deployed across the entire production
eco-system
from the wireless chipset suppliers to the consumer brands. Wireless devices are often tested at multiple points along the manufacturing process that include insertions at component,
system-in-package
(“SiP”), module, PCB, SMT and finished product stages.
 
4

Table of Contents
Design verification is an important step in the development process for evaluating product performance prior to starting production. As end market unit volumes have increased, the quantity of units and the amount of data that must be analyzed for a successful product launch continues to grow. LitePoint products provide easy to use, domain specific tools for rapid analysis of product performance. This helps to speed time to market.
In high volume manufacturing, wireless test enables the calibration of each individual product’s wireless performance to improve range, data throughput and battery life. Testing also verifies product specifications for product quality control. As markets become increasingly competitive, product performance and quality provide brand differentiation.
Wireless standards can be thought of in three categories, connectivity, cellular and location. Connectivity covers many standards such as
Wi-Fi,
Bluetooth, and GPS. LitePoint’s IQxel products cover emerging
Wi-Fi
standards such as WiFi 6E which makes use of the newly allocated
6-7GHz
spectrum. Connectivity also includes a variety of other standards such as Bluetooth Classic, Bluetooth 5.0 and Bluetooth low energy, Zigbee,
Z-Wave,
NFC, LoRa and others.
The IQxel product family’s high-performance wireless and multi-device testing economics is aligned with the needs of networking equipment, Internet gateways, IoT products and embedded modules used in smartphones, tablets, and PCs. Another connectivity product, the IQnfc, addresses the growing use of NFC technology for payments with mobile devices.
Cellular standards include 2G, 3G, 4G and the new 5G mobile phone technologies. LitePoint’s IQxstream is a multi-device production test optimized solution for high-speed testing of GSM, EDGE, CDMA2000,
TD-SCDMA,
WCDMA, HSPA+,
LTE-FDD,
TD_LTE, and
LTE-A,
and 5G technologies. It is used for calibration and verification of smartphones, tablets, small cell wireless gateways and embedded cellular modules. The IQcell, is a multi-device cellular signaling test solution which enables user experience testing of LTE cellular devices via
over-the-air
connections. The IQgig family provides test solutions at the intermediate and millimeter wave frequencies for 5G and 802.11ad.
Location technologies have traditionally been satellite-based wireless signals such as GPS and GLONASS, which are tested on LitePoint’s connectivity and cellular equipment. A new technology called Ultra-WideBand is being adopted in IoT, automotive and mobile phones. Ultra-WideBand provides finer location capability and is tested on LitePoint’s
IQgig-UWB
equipment.
To complement the test systems, LitePoint offers turnkey test software for over 350 of the most popular wireless chipsets. These optimized solutions provide rapid development of high volume manufacturing solutions with a minimum of engineering effort by customers.
Industrial Automation
Our Industrial Automation segment is comprised of three business units: Universal Robots, Mobile Industrial Robots and AutoGuide.
Universal Robots
Universal Robots is a leading supplier of collaborative robots, which are
low-cost,
easy-to-deploy
and
simple-to-program
robots that work side by side with production workers to improve quality, increase manufacturing efficiency and decrease manufacturing costs. Collaborative robots are designed to mimic the motion of a human arm and can be fitted with task specific grippers or end effectors to support a wide range of applications. Universal Robots offers a variety of collaborative robot models, including the UR3, UR5 and UR10,
 
5

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each with different weight carrying capacity and arm reach. All models are easily integrated into existing production environments. Universal Robots’ products are differentiated by their:
 
 
 
easy programming using a graphical interface which allows users to program the collaborative robot in a few hours;
 
 
 
flexibility and ease of use in allowing customers to change the task the collaborative robot is performing as their production demands dictate;
 
 
 
safe operations as collaborative robots can assist workers in side by side production environments requiring no special safety enclosures or shielding to protect workers; and
 
 
 
short payback period, on average less than 12 months.
In 2018, Universal Robots introduced its
e-Series
collaborative robots which include technology advances that enable faster development of applications, greater precision and improved safety. Universal Robots offers four
e-Series
collaborative robot models UR3e, UR5e, UR10e and UR16e that was launched in September 2019. In 2020, Universal Robots introduced ActiNav, an autonomous bin picking kit for machine tending applications.
Cumulatively, Universal Robots has sold over 51,000 collaborative robots in diverse production environments and applications.
Mobile Industrial Robots
MiR is a leading supplier of AMRs, which are
low-cost,
easy-to-deploy
and
simple-to-program
mobile robots that increase manufacturing and warehouse efficiency and decrease costs. Collaborative autonomous mobile robots are designed to move material from point to point via autonomous navigation rather than the need for traditional mobile robot guidance infrastructure such as painted or magnetic strips, and are designed to navigate safely around obstacles and people. MiR offers five collaborative autonomous mobile robot models, the MiR100, MiR200, MiR500, MiR1000 and MiR250 (launched in March 2020) each with different payload carrying capacity. All models are easily integrated into existing production environments. MiR’s products are differentiated by their:
 
 
 
easy programming using a graphical interface which allows users to program the collaborative robot in a few hours;
 
 
 
ease of use, speed of deployment and flexibility in allowing customers to change the task as their demands dictate;
 
 
 
reliable autonomous navigation over large manufacturing and warehouse areas; and
 
 
 
short payback period, on average 12–18 months.
Cumulatively, MiR has sold over 5,000 collaborative autonomous mobile robots in diverse production and warehouse environments and applications.
AutoGuide
AutoGuide is a maker of high payload AMRs, an emerging and fast growing segment of the global forklift market. AutoGuide’s AMRs are used for material transport of payloads up to 4,500 kg in manufacturing, warehouse and logistics applications. These products complement MiR’s lower payload products.
Cumulatively, AutoGuide has sold over 160 autonomous mobile robots in diverse production and warehouse environments and applications.
 
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Sales and Distribution
In 2020, revenues from Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd., a customer of our Semiconductor Test segment, accounted for 15% of our consolidated revenues. In 2019 and 2018, no single direct customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues. In each of the years, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our five largest direct customers in aggregate accounted for 36%, 27% and 27% of our consolidated revenues, respectively.
OSAT customers, such as Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd., often purchase our test systems based upon recommendations from OEMs, IDMs and Fabless companies. In all cases when an OSAT customer purchases a test system from us, we consider the OSAT as the customer since credit risk, title and risk of loss, among other things, are between Teradyne and the OSAT. We estimate consolidated revenues driven by one OEM customer, combining direct sales to that customer with sales to the customer’s OSATs (which include Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd.), accounted for approximately 25%, 10% and 13% of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We estimate consolidated revenues driven by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. (“Huawei”), combining direct sales to that customer with sales to the customer’s OSATs, accounted for approximately 3%, 11% and 4% of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The loss of, or significant decrease in demand from this OEM customer or Huawei, or any of our five largest direct customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We have sales and service offices located throughout North America, Central America, Asia and Europe. We sell in these areas predominantly through a direct sales force, except for Industrial Automation products, which are sold through distributors. Our manufacturing activities are primarily conducted through subcontractors and outsourced contract manufacturers with significant operations in China and Malaysia.
Sales to customers outside the United States were 90%, 85%, and 87%, respectively, of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018. Sales are attributed to geographic areas based on the location of the customer site.
See also “Item 1A: Risk Factors” and Note T: “Operating Segment, Geographic and Significant Customer Information” in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Competition
We face significant competition throughout the world in each of our reportable segments. Competitors in the Semiconductor Test segment include, among others, Advantest Corporation and Cohu, Inc.
Competitors in the System Test segment include, among others, Keysight Technologies, Inc., Advantest Corporation, Test Research, Inc. and SPEA S.p.A.
Competitors in our Wireless Test segment include, among others, Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Anritsu Company, Keysight Technologies, Inc. and National Instruments Corporation, Welzek and iTest.
Competitors in our Industrial Automation segment include manufacturers of traditional industrial robots such as KUKA Robotics Corporation, ABB, FANUC and Yaskawa Electric Corporation, companies with emerging collaborative robot offerings such as Techman, Doosan, and AUBO Robotics, and manufacturers of autonomous mobile robots such as Omron, Fetch, OTTO Motors, Vecna, Seegrid and Balyo.
Some of our competitors have substantially greater financial and other resources to pursue engineering, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of their products. We also face competition from emerging Asian companies and from internal suppliers at several of our customers. Some of our competitors have introduced or
 
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announced new products with certain performance characteristics which may be considered equal or superior to those we currently offer. We expect our competitors to continue to improve the performance of their current products and to introduce new products or new technologies that provide improved cost of ownership and performance characteristics. See also “Item 1A: Risk Factors.”
Backlog
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, our backlog of unfilled orders in our four reportable segments was as follows:
 
 
  
2020
 
  
2019
 
 
  
(in millions)
 
Semiconductor Test
  
$
567.4
 
  
$
543.2
 
System Test
  
 
290.6
 
  
 
206.0
 
Wireless Test
  
 
41.6
 
  
 
42.9
 
Industrial Automation
  
 
30.0
 
  
 
17.9
 
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
  
$
929.6
 
  
$
810.0
 
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Customers may delay delivery of products or cancel orders suddenly and without advanced notice, subject to possible cancellation penalties. Due to possible customer changes in delivery schedules and cancellation of orders, our backlog at any particular date is not necessarily indicative of the actual sales for any succeeding period. Delays in delivery schedules or cancellations of backlog during any particular period could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Raw Materials
Our products contain electronic and mechanical components that are provided by a wide range of suppliers. Some of these components are standard products, while others are manufactured to our specifications. We can experience occasional delays in obtaining timely delivery of certain items. While the majority of our components are available from multiple suppliers, certain items are obtained from sole sources. We may experience a temporary adverse impact if any of our sole source suppliers delay or cease to deliver products.
Intellectual Property and Licenses
The development of our products, both hardware and software, is based in significant part on proprietary information, our brands and technology. We protect our rights in proprietary information, brands and technology through various methods, such as:
 
 
 
patents;
 
 
 
copyrights;
 
 
 
trademarks;
 
 
 
trade secrets;
 
 
 
standards of business conduct and related business practices; and
 
 
 
technology license agreements, software license agreements,
non-disclosure
agreements, employment agreements, and other agreements.
However, these protections might not be effective in all circumstances. Competitors might independently develop similar technology or exploit our proprietary information and our brands in countries where we lack enforceable intellectual property rights or where enforcement of such rights through the legal system provides an
 
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insufficient deterrent. Also, intellectual property protections can lapse or be invalidated through appropriate legal processes. We do not believe that any single piece of intellectual property or proprietary rights is essential to our business.
Human Capital Resources
We believe that our future success depends upon our continued ability to attract, develop, and retain a high-performance workforce, comprised of people with shared values. As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 5,500 employees, of whom approximately 1,900 were employed in the United States and approximately 3,600 were employed outside of the United States. Our largest
non-US
employee populations are in the Philippines (17%), China (12%), Denmark (10%), Costa Rica (6%), and Taiwan (6%). We also leverage contractors to provide flexibility for our business and manufacturing needs. As of December 31, 2020, we worked with approximately 300 contractors globally. Since the inception of our business, we have experienced no work stoppages or other labor disturbances.
Corporate Culture
Our core values are conducting business with honesty and integrity, collaborating with our colleagues as a company without doors, and partnering with our customers every step of the way, because customers count on us.
We strive to foster a positive work environment that helps employees thrive. It is a priority for us to ensure that our people feel inspired, supported, safe and able to achieve their personal best. We are committed to equality through nondiscrimination, harassment prevention and pay equity policies. We value a diverse, inclusive and respectful work environment where all employees enjoy challenging assignments, development opportunities and a safe, positive culture.
We are committed to conducting business in a responsible manner, with strategic operational policies, procedures and values that support transparency, sustainability and legal compliance. We ensure ethical operations and business commitments through robust governance of the company’s code of conduct and environmental, health and safety programs.
Competitive Pay and Benefits
The primary objective of our compensation program is to provide a compensation and benefits package that will continue to attract, retain, motivate and reward high performing employees who operate in a highly competitive and technologically challenging environment. We seek to achieve this objective by linking a significant portion of compensation to company and business unit performance. We enable employees to share in the success of the company through various programs including a stock purchase program, equity compensation, profit sharing and bonus plans. We seek competitiveness and fairness in total compensation with reference to peer comparisons and internal equity.
In addition to providing our employees with competitive compensation packages, we offer benefits designed to meet the needs of employees and their families, including paid time off, parental leave, bereavement leave, health insurance coverage, flexible work arrangements, contributions to retirement savings, and access to employee assistance and work-life programs.
Employee Development and Training
We believe that employee development and training is a key factor in attracting, motivating, improving and retaining a strong, competitive workforce. We provide continual development to our employees focused on developing their job skills and competencies. Examples include new manager competencies like giving feedback
 
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and coaching, and training in software development tools and project management. Our employees also receive annual performance reviews. Employees and managers look back on the previous year, review career development plans and create goals for the next year.
We are committed to recruiting and developing talent at the collegiate level to help advance STEM education for the future generation. For example, our paid internships and entry-level positions offer real-world experience, and our
co-op
program offers higher education students a unique learning opportunity as students alternate one semester in a work assignment and one semester in the classroom. Additionally, we pay $5,250 per year for educational courses related to an employee’s work or as part of a degree program, including tuition, lab fees and books. We also offer a scholarship program for employees with
college-age
children and grandchildren.
Employee Engagement
We conduct regular employee surveys to check in with our global workforce and obtain input on a number of topics. The feedback we receive from these surveys helps us assess employee sentiment, identify areas of improvement and guides our decision-making as it relates to people management. In addition, CEO Mark Jagiela and other executives meet with employees on a frequent basis through exchange meetings and quarterly webcasts. The exchange meetings allow the executives to directly interact with a small group of employees, while the global webcasts enable all employees to engage with senior leaders and ask questions in an open Q&A session.
We also offer employees an opportunity to network and connect with colleagues who share similar interests. This includes groups such as New Employees to Teradyne, Woman’s Affinity Group, Blue and Green (for team members that are committed to the environment), Runner’s affinity group and LGBTQ+ advocates.
Diversity and Inclusion
We believe in fostering a diverse workforce and equitable and inclusive culture in order to build a stronger and more resilient company for our customers, our employees and our communities. To support this effort, we have a Diversity and Inclusion Charter which was developed by our Diversity, Equity and Inclusion executive
sub-committee
and designed to ensure that we build diversity across our workforce. We have established programs for recruiting and hiring candidates from various backgrounds and experiences. We have implemented policies regarding gender pay equity and have conducted audits in the United States which have not identified any pay equity issues in the employee populations tested. We are an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer committed to making employment decisions without regard to race, religion, ethnicity or national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or any other characteristics protected by law.
We have a tradition of amplifying the charitable actions of our employees and responding to the needs of the communities where we work. In 2020, in order to show support for effecting positive change in society, we joined countless others to donate to organizations fighting for social justice and racial equality. We also sponsor the Massachusetts Conference for Women and the California Conference for Women offering opportunities for business networking, professional development and personal growth.
Health and Safety
The health and safety of our employees is our highest priority. We are committed to complying with all applicable regulatory health and safety requirements wherever we operate. We conduct internal audits, regular reviews and monitoring of regulations to ensure compliance with laws and regulations at the local, state, province and country levels. We ensure workers are provided with the knowledge to perform their jobs safely by deploying mandatory environmental, health and safety training. We also require contractors to complete safety training prior to working at any Teradyne site. We monitor, track and report common safety metrics such as
 
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accidents, near misses and illness. Our injury and illness rate is below the industry average. We also provide our employees with a flexible and adjustable workspace, which includes reviewing ergonomics issues in the workplace, educating employees to self-identify risks and ensuring they have the work environment they need to do their jobs safely and effectively.
Throughout the
COVID-19
pandemic, we have focused on ensuring the health and safety of our employees. At the onset of the pandemic, we made the decision to close our offices and implement work from home policies for most employees. During this time, we have also provided resources to enable employees to effectively manage remote work, such as web conferencing and project collaboration solutions and furniture and equipment for
at-home
offices. To protect those employees whose work requires them to be
on-site,
we’ve implemented cleaning processes, access to personal protection equipment and other protocols to ensure their safety. We have also supported our global workforce by sending regular
all-employee
communications, providing development opportunities for managers and employees to support effectively working virtually, establishing emergency response teams to empower local decision-making, conducting surveys to check in with employees, sharing regular video updates from our leadership team, and establishing a well-defined return to work process.
Regulatory Environment
We are subject to various federal, state, and local government laws and regulations relating to international trade, business conduct, the protection of employee health and safety and the environment.
We accrue for all known environmental liabilities when it becomes probable that we will incur cleanup costs and those costs can reasonably be estimated. Estimated environmental costs are not expected to materially affect the financial position or results of our operations in future periods. However, estimates of future costs are subject to change due to protracted cleanup periods and changing environmental remediation laws and regulations.
We are subject to U.S. laws and regulations that limit and restrict the export of some of our products and services and may restrict our transactions with certain customers, business partners and other persons. In certain circumstances, export control and economic sanctions regulations may prohibit the export of certain products, services, and technologies, and in other circumstances we may be required to obtain an export license before exporting the controlled item. For example, we must comply with current U.S. Department of Commerce export control regulations restricting transactions with certain customers in China. We must also comply with export restrictions and laws imposed by other countries affecting trade and investments. We maintain an export compliance program but there are risks that the compliance controls could be circumvented, exposing us to legal liabilities. Compliance with these laws has not significantly limited our sales but could significantly limit them in the future. Changes in, and responses to, U.S. trade policy could reduce the competitiveness of our products and cause our sales to drop, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Pursuant to General Instruction G (3) of Form
10-K,
the following table is included in Part I of this Annual Report on Form
10-K
in lieu of being included in the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders. The table sets forth the names of all of our executive officers and certain other information relating to their positions held with Teradyne and other business experience. Our executive officers do not have a specific term of office but rather serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors.
 
Executive Officer
  
Age
 
  
Position
  
Business Experience for The Past 5 Years
Mark E. Jagiela
  
 
60
 
  
Chief Executive Officer and President
  
Chief Executive Officer since February 2014; President of Teradyne since January 2013; President of Semiconductor Test from 2003 to February 2016; Vice President of Teradyne from 2001 to 2013.
Sanjay Mehta
  
 
52
 
  
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
  
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of Teradyne since April 2019; Senior Vice President and General Manager of Compute and XR Products at Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. (“Qualcomm”) from June 2018 to March 2019; President of Qualcomm’s semiconductor segment (“QCT”) China from March 2016 to June 2018; Senior Vice President Business Operations of QCT at Qualcomm from November 2015 to March 2016; Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President, Sales Operations, of QCT at Qualcomm from October 2010 to November 2015.
Charles J. Gray
  
 
59
 
  
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
  
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Teradyne since April 2009.
Bradford B. Robbins
  
 
62
 
  
President of Wireless Test
  
President of Wireless Test since August 2014; Chief Operating Officer of LitePoint Corporation from 2012 to 2014; Vice President of Teradyne since 2001.
Gregory S. Smith
  
 
57
 
  
President of Industrial Automation
  
President of Industrial Automation since October 2020; President of Semiconductor Test from February 2016 to September 2020; Vice President, SOC Business Group and Marketing Manager for Semiconductor Test Group from January 2014 to February 2016; Business Unit Manager, Complex SOC Business Unit from 2009 to January 2014.
Richard J Burns
  
 
58
 
  
President of Semiconductor Test
  
President of Semiconductor Test since October 2020; Vice President, Semiconductor Test Engineering from February 2016 to September 2020.
Walter G. Vahey
  
 
56
 
  
Executive Vice President, Business Development
  
Executive Vice President, Business Development since December 2017; President of System Test from July 2012 to December 2017; Vice President of Teradyne since 2008; General Manager of Storage Test from 2008 to December 2017; General Manager of Production Board Test from April 2013 to December 2017.
 
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Item 1A:
Risk Factors
The risks described below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.
Risks Related to the
COVID-19
Pandemic
The novel coronavirus
(COVID-19)
pandemic has impacted our business and could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity or cash flows.
The global pandemic of the novel strain of the coronavirus
(COVID-19)
has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures in an effort to contain the spread of the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, limitations on gatherings or social distancing requirements, quarantines,
shelter-in-place
orders, and business limitations and shutdowns. These measures have impacted our
day-to-day
operations and disrupted our business, workforce and operations, as well as the operations of our customers, contract manufacturers and suppliers. The
COVID-19
pandemic, and the numerous measures implemented by authorities in response, has adversely impacted our results of operations, including increasing costs company-wide and decreasing demand in our Industrial Automation businesses, but we cannot accurately estimate the full extent of the impact for our 2020 financial results or to our future financial results.
The
COVID-19
pandemic has significantly increased economic uncertainty in our markets, resulting in a decrease in demand for our industrial automation products. The spread of
COVID-19
has caused us to modify our business practices, including implementing social distancing protocols, suspending employee travel, requiring most employees to work remotely, canceling physical participation in meetings, events and conferences, and extensively and frequently disinfecting our workspaces, and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, contract manufacturers and suppliers.
We are continuing to monitor the rapidly evolving situation regarding the
COVID-19
pandemic and the availability of vaccinations where we do business. However, we are unable to accurately predict the full impact of
COVID-19,
which will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with accuracy, including, but not limited to, any new surges of the virus, the availability of vaccines, further government actions to contain the virus, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume.
Risks Associated with Teradyne’s Markets
Our business is impacted by global and industry-specific economic cycles, which are difficult to predict, and actions we have taken or may take to offset these cycles may not be sufficient.
Capital equipment providers in the electronics, semiconductor industries and industrial automation, such as Teradyne, have, in the past, been negatively impacted by both sudden slowdowns in the global economies and recurring cyclicality within those industries. These cycles have resulted in periods of over-supply; a trend we believe will continue to occur. Our business and results of operations depend, in significant part, upon capital expenditures of manufacturers of semiconductors electronics and other industrial products, which in turn depend upon the current and anticipated market demand for those products. Disruption or deterioration in economic conditions may reduce customer purchases of our products, thereby reducing our revenues and earnings. In addition, such adverse changes in economic conditions, and resulting slowdowns in the market for our products, may, among other things, result in increased price competition for our products, increased risk of excess and obsolete inventories, increased risk in the collectability of our accounts receivable from our customers, potential reserves for doubtful accounts and write-offs of accounts receivable, increased risk of restructuring charges, and higher operating costs as a percentage of revenues, which, in each case and together, adversely affect our
 
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operating results. We are unable to predict the likely duration, frequency and severity of disruptions in financial markets, credit availability, and adverse economic conditions throughout the world, and we cannot ensure that the level of revenues or new orders for a fiscal quarter will be sustained in subsequent quarters. We have taken actions to address the effects of general economic variability and recurring industry cyclicality, including implementing cost control and reduction measures. We cannot predict whether these measures will be sufficient to offset global or market-specific disruptions that might affect our test businesses and we may need to take additional or different measures in the future.
We are subject to intense competition.
We face significant competition throughout the world in each of our reportable segments. Some of our competitors have substantial financial and other resources to pursue engineering, manufacturing, marketing and distribution of their products. We also face competition from emerging Asian companies and internal development at several of our customers. Some of our competitors have introduced or announced new products with certain performance characteristics that may be considered equal or superior to those we currently offer. We expect our competitors to continue to improve the performance of their current products and to introduce new products or new technologies that provide improved cost of ownership and performance characteristics. New product introductions by competitors could cause a decline in revenues or loss of market acceptance of our products.
The market for our products is concentrated, and our business depends, in part, on obtaining orders from a few significant customers.
The market for our products is concentrated with a limited number of significant customers accounting for a substantial portion of the purchases of test equipment. In each of the years, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our five largest direct customers in aggregate accounted for 36%, 27% and 27% of consolidated revenues, respectively.
We estimate consolidated revenues driven by one OEM customer, combining direct sales to that customer with sales to the customer’s OSATs (which include Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd.), accounted for approximately 25%, 10% and 13% of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We estimate consolidated revenues driven by Huawei, combining direct sales to that customer with sales to the customer’s OSATs accounted for approximately 3%, 11% and 4% of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. In any one reporting period, a single customer or several customers may contribute even a larger percentage of our consolidated revenues. In addition, our ability to increase sales will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain orders from current or new significant customers. The opportunities to obtain orders from these customers may be limited, which may impair our ability to grow revenues. We expect that sales of our products will continue to be concentrated with a limited number of significant customers for the foreseeable future. The loss of a significant customer or any reduction in orders by these customers, including reductions due to market or competitive conditions, would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations.
If we fail to develop new technologies to adapt to our customers’ needs and if our customers fail to accept our new products, our revenues will be adversely affected.
We believe that our technological position depends primarily on the technical competence and creative ability of our engineers. In a rapidly evolving market, such as ours, the development or acquisition of new technologies, commercialization of those technologies into products and market acceptance and customer demand for those products are critical to our success. Successful product development or acquisition, introduction and acceptance depend upon a number of factors, including:
 
 
 
new product selection;
 
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ability to meet customer requirements including with respect to safety and cyber security;
 
 
 
development of competitive products by competitors;
 
 
 
timely and efficient completion of product design;
 
 
 
timely and efficient implementation of manufacturing and manufacturing processes;
 
 
 
timely remediation of product performance issues, if any, identified during testing;
 
 
 
assembly processes and product performance at customer locations;
 
 
 
differentiation of our products from our competitors’ products;
 
 
 
management of customer expectations concerning product capabilities and product life cycles;
 
 
 
transition of customers to new product platforms;
 
 
 
compliance with product safety regulations;
 
 
 
ability to protect products from cyber attacks when used by our customers;
 
 
 
ability to attract and retain technical talent; and
 
 
 
innovation that does not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties.
Risks Associated with Operating a Global Business
We are subject to risks of operating internationally.
A significant portion of our total revenues is derived from customers outside the United States. Our international sales and operations are subject to significant risks and difficulties, including:
 
 
 
unexpected changes in legal and regulatory requirements affecting international markets;
 
 
 
changes in tariffs and exchange rates;
 
 
 
social, political and economic instability, acts of terrorism and international conflicts;
 
 
 
disruption caused by health pandemics, such as the coronavirus;
 
 
 
difficulties in protecting intellectual property;
 
 
 
difficulties in accounts receivable collection;
 
 
 
cultural differences in the conduct of business;
 
 
 
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
 
 
 
compliance with anti-corruption laws;
 
 
 
compliance with data privacy regulations;
 
 
 
compliance with customs and trade regulations; and
 
 
 
compliance with international tax laws and regulations.
In addition, an increasing portion of our products and the products we purchase from our suppliers are sourced or manufactured in foreign locations, including China and Malaysia, and a large portion of the devices our products test are fabricated and tested by foundries and subcontractors in Taiwan, China, Korea and other parts of Asia. As a result, we are subject to a number of economic and other risks, particularly during times of political, health or financial instability in these regions. Disruption of manufacturing or supply sources in these
 
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international locations could materially adversely impact our ability to fill customer orders and potentially result in lost business.
Risks Related to Teradyne’s Finances
We may not fully realize the benefits of our acquisitions or strategic alliances.
In June 2015, we acquired Universal Robots, in 2018, we acquired Energid and MiR and, in 2019, we acquired Lemsys and AutoGuide. We may not be able to realize the benefit of acquiring or successfully growing these businesses. We may continue to acquire additional businesses, form strategic alliances, or create joint ventures with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing businesses. We may not be able to realize the expected synergies and cost savings from the integration with our existing operations of other businesses or technologies that we may acquire. In addition, the integration process for our acquisitions may be complex, costly and time consuming and include unanticipated issues, expenses, and liabilities. We may have difficulty in developing, manufacturing, and marketing the products of a newly acquired company in a manner that enhances the performance of our combined businesses or product lines and allows us to realize value from expected synergies. Following an acquisition, we may not achieve the revenue or net income levels that justify the acquisition. Acquisitions may also result in
one-time
charges (such as acquisition-related expenses, write-offs or restructuring charges) or in the future, impairment of goodwill or acquired intangible assets that adversely affect our operating results. Additionally, we may fund acquisitions of new businesses, strategic alliances, or joint ventures by utilizing our cash, incurring debt, issuing shares of our common stock, or by other means.
We may incur higher tax rates than we expect and may have exposure to additional international tax liabilities and costs.
We are subject to paying income taxes in the United States and various other countries where we operate. Our effective tax rate is dependent on where our earnings are generated and the tax regulations and the interpretation and judgment of administrative tax or revenue authorities in the United States and other countries. We have pursued a global tax strategy that could be adversely affected by the mix of earnings and tax rates in the countries where we operate, changes to tax laws, tax regulations or an adverse tax ruling by administrative authorities. We are also subject to tax audits in the countries where we operate. Any material change in our tax liability resulting from changes in tax laws, tax regulations, administrative ruling or from an audit from an administrative tax or revenue authority could negatively affect our financial results.
As a multinational corporation, we are subject to income taxes as well as
non-income
based taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. In certain foreign jurisdictions, we qualify for tax incentives and tax holidays based on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various tests relating to our employment levels, research and development expenditures and other qualification requirements in a particular foreign jurisdiction. While we intend to operate in such a manner to maintain and maximize our tax incentives and tax holidays, no assurance can be given that we have so qualified or that we will so qualify for any particular year or jurisdiction. If we fail to qualify and to remain qualified for certain foreign tax incentives and tax holidays, we may be subject to further taxation or an increase in our effective tax rate which would adversely impact our financial results. In December 2015, we entered into an agreement with the Singapore Economic Development Board which extended, until December 31, 2020, our Singapore tax holiday under substantially similar terms to the agreement which expired on December 31, 2015. In November 2020, we entered into an agreement with the Singapore Economic Development Board which extended our Singapore tax holiday under substantially similar terms to the agreement which expired on December 31, 2020. The new tax holiday is scheduled to expire on December 31, 2025.
The tax savings attributable to the Singapore tax holiday for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 were $29.9 million or $0.16 per diluted share, $15.1 million or $0.08 per diluted share and $11.9 million or $0.06 per diluted share, respectively. These tax savings may not be achievable in subsequent years due to changes in Singapore’s tax laws or the expiration of the tax holiday.
 
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In addition, we may incur additional costs, including headcount expenses, in order to maintain or obtain a foreign tax incentive or tax holiday in a particular foreign jurisdiction.
We have significant guarantees, indemnification, and customer confidentiality obligations.
From time to time, we make guarantees to customers regarding the delivery, price and performance of our products and guarantee certain indebtedness, performance obligations or lease commitments of our subsidiary and affiliate companies. We also have agreed to provide indemnification to our officers, directors, employees and agents, to the extent permitted by law, arising from certain events or occurrences, while the officer, director, employee or agent, is or was serving at our request in such capacity. Additionally, we have confidentiality obligations to certain customers and if breached would require the payment of significant penalties. If we become liable under any of these obligations, it could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results. For additional information see Note M: “Commitments and Contingencies—Guarantees and Indemnification Obligations” in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
We may discontinue or reduce our quarterly cash dividend or share repurchase program.
In January 2014, our Board of Directors initiated a quarterly cash dividend. Since 2014, the Board of Directors has increased our quarterly cash dividend from $0.06 per share to $0.10 per share. Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive dividends when and if they are declared by our Board of Directors.
In January 2015, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program. From January 2015 to April 2020, we repurchased $2.1 billion of common stock. Due to the uncertainty regarding the duration, severity and business impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic, we suspended the stock repurchase program as of April 1, 2020. In January 2021, our Board of Directors approved a new $2.0 billion share repurchase program. Under the share repurchase program, we may repurchase outstanding shares of our common stock from time to time in the open market and through privately negotiated transactions. Unless terminated earlier by resolution of our Board of Directors, the repurchase program will expire when we have repurchased all shares authorized for repurchase under the share repurchase program.
Future cash dividends and share repurchases are subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend, among other things, upon our earnings, capital requirements and financial condition. While we have declared a quarterly cash dividend on our common stock and authorized a share repurchase program, we are not required to do either and may reduce or eliminate our cash dividend or share repurchase program in the future. The reduction or elimination of our cash dividend or our share repurchase program could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We have incurred indebtedness and may incur additional indebtedness.
On December 12, 2016, we completed a private offering of $460.0 million aggregate principal amount of 1.25% convertible senior unsecured notes (the “Notes”) due December 15, 2023 and received net proceeds, after issuance costs, of approximately $450.8 million, $33.0 million of which was used to pay the net cost, after being partially offset by proceeds from the sale of the warrants, of the convertible note hedge transactions and $50.1 million of which was used to repurchase 2.0 million shares of our common stock. Holders of the Notes may require us to repurchase the Notes upon the occurrence of certain fundamental changes involving us or the holders may elect to convert into shares of our common stock. As of February 22, 2021, twenty-four holders had exercised the option to convert $51.0 million worth of notes.
On May 1, 2020, we entered into a three-year, senior secured revolving credit facility of up to $400.0 million. Subject to customary conditions, we may seek to obtain from existing or new lenders incremental commitments under the credit facility in an aggregate principal amount not to exceed $150.0 million. We have
 
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not borrowed any funds under this credit facility. We could borrow funds under this credit facility at any time for general corporate purposes and working capital.
The issuance of the Notes and any additional indebtedness, among other things, could:
 
 
 
make it difficult to make payments on this indebtedness and our other obligations;
 
 
 
make it difficult to obtain any necessary future financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or other purposes;
 
 
 
require the dedication of a substantial portion of any cash flows from operations to service for indebtedness, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for other purposes, including capital expenditures; and
 
 
 
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industries in which we compete.
Restrictive covenants in the agreement governing our senior secured revolving credit facility may restrict our ability to pursue business strategies.
The agreement governing our senior secured revolving credit facility limits our ability, among other things, to incur additional secured indebtedness; sell, transfer, license or dispose of assets; consolidate or merge; enter into transactions with our affiliates; and incur liens. In addition, our senior secured revolving credit facility contains financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest, such as, subject to permitted exceptions, making capital expenditures in excess of certain thresholds, making investments, loans and other advances, and prepaying any additional indebtedness while our indebtedness under our senior secured revolving credit facility is outstanding. Our failure to comply with financial and other restrictive covenants could result in an event of default, which if not cured or waived, could result in the lenders requiring immediate payment of all outstanding borrowings or foreclosing on collateral pledged to them to secure the indebtedness.
Our convertible note hedge and warrant transactions could impact the value of our stock.
Concurrent with the offering of the Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions (the “Note Hedge Transactions”) with the initial purchasers or their affiliates (the “Option Counterparties”). The Note Hedge Transactions cover, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments, the number of shares of our common stock that underlie the Notes, with a strike price equal to the conversion price of the Notes of $31.56. The Note Hedge Transactions cover, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments, approximately 14.6 million shares of our common stock.
Separately and concurrent with the pricing of the Notes, we entered into warrant transactions with the Option Counterparties (the “Warrant Transactions”) in which we sold
net-share-settled
(or, at our election subject to certain conditions, cash-settled) warrants to the Option Counterparties. The Warrant Transactions cover, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments, approximately 14.6 million shares of our common stock. The strike price of the warrants is $39.60 per share. The Warrant Transactions could have a dilutive effect to our common stock to the extent that the market price per share of our common stock, as measured under the terms of the Warrant Transactions, exceeds the applicable strike price of the warrants.
The Note Hedge Transactions are expected to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of the Notes. However, the Warrant Transactions could separately have a dilutive effect to the extent that the market value per share of our common stock exceeds the applicable strike price of the warrants. The net cost of the Note Hedge Transactions, after being partially offset by the proceeds from the sale of the warrants, was approximately $33.0 million.
In connection with establishing their initial hedge of these convertible note hedge and warrant transactions, the Option Counterparties have entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock
 
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and/or purchase shares of our common stock or other securities, including the Notes, concurrent with, or shortly after, the pricing of the Notes. In addition, the Option Counterparties may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock or by selling our common stock or other securities, including the Notes, in secondary market transactions (and may do so during any observation period related to the conversion of the Notes). These activities could adversely impact the value of our common stock and the Notes.
We may not be able to pay our debt and other obligations.
If our cash flows are inadequate to meet our obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows or otherwise obtain funds necessary to make required payments on the Notes or certain of our other obligations, we would be in default under the terms thereof, which would permit the holders of those obligations to accelerate their maturity and also could cause defaults under future indebtedness we may incur. Any such default could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial position and operating results. In addition, we cannot be certain that we would be able to repay amounts due on the Notes if those obligations were to be accelerated following the occurrence of any other event of default as defined in the instruments creating those obligations, or if the holders of the Notes require us to repurchase the Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change involving us. Moreover, we cannot be certain that we will have sufficient funds or will be able to arrange for financing to pay the principal amount due on the Notes at maturity.
Risks Related to Operations
Our operating results are likely to fluctuate significantly.
Our operating results are affected by a wide variety of factors that could materially adversely affect revenues or profitability. The following factors could impact future operations:
 
 
 
a worldwide economic slowdown or disruption in the global financial or industrial markets;
 
 
 
competitive pressures on selling prices;
 
 
 
our ability to introduce, and the market acceptance of, new products;
 
 
 
changes in product revenues mix resulting from changes in customer demand;
 
 
 
the level of orders received which can be shipped in a quarter because of the tendency of customers to wait until late in a quarter to commit to purchase due to capital expenditure approvals and constraints occurring at the end of a quarter, or the hope of obtaining more favorable pricing from a competitor seeking the business;
 
 
 
engineering and development investments relating to new product introductions, and the expansion of manufacturing, outsourcing and engineering operations in Asia;
 
 
 
provisions for excess and obsolete inventory relating to the lack of demand for and the discontinuance of products;
 
 
 
impairment charges for certain long-lived and intangible assets, and goodwill;
 
 
 
an increase in the leasing of our products to customers;
 
 
 
disruption caused by health pandemics, such as the coronavirus;
 
 
 
our ability to expand our global distribution channel for our collaborative and mobile robots;
 
 
 
parallel or multi-site testing which could lead to a decrease in the ultimate size of the market for our semiconductor and electronic test products; and
 
 
 
the ability of our suppliers and subcontractors to meet product quality or delivery requirements needed to satisfy customer orders for our products, especially if consolidated revenues increase.
 
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As a result of the foregoing and other factors, we have experienced and may continue to experience material fluctuations in future operating results on a quarterly or annual basis which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results or stock price.
If our suppliers do not meet product or delivery requirements, we could have reduced revenues and earnings.
Certain components, including semiconductor chips, may be in short supply from time to time because of high industry demand or the inability of some vendors to consistently meet our quality or delivery requirements. If any of our suppliers were to cancel contracts or commitments or fail to meet the quality or delivery requirements needed to satisfy customer orders for our products, we could lose time-sensitive customer orders, have significantly decreased revenues and earnings and be subject to contractual penalties, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we rely on contract manufacturers for certain subsystems used in our products, and our ability to meet customer orders for those products depends upon the timeliness and quality of the work performed by these subcontractors, over whom we do not exercise any control.
To a certain extent, we are dependent upon the ability of our suppliers and contract manufacturers to help meet increased product or delivery requirements. It may be difficult for certain suppliers to meet delivery requirements in a period of rapid growth, therefore impacting our ability to meet our customers’ demands.
Our suppliers are subject to trade regulations, including tariffs and export restrictions imposed by the United States Government and by the governments of other countries. These regulations could impact our suppliers’ ability to provide us with components for our products or could increase the price of those components.
We rely on the financial strength of our suppliers. There can be no assurance that the loss of suppliers either as a result of financial viability, bankruptcy or otherwise will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our operations may be adversely impacted if our outsourced contract manufacturers or service providers fail to perform.
We depend on Flex Ltd. (“Flex”) to manufacture and test our FLEX and J750 family of products from its facility in China, Plexus Corp. (“Plexus”) to manufacture and test our Magnum and ETS family of products from its facility in Malaysia, and on other contract manufacturers to manufacture other products. If for any reason these contract manufacturers cannot provide us with these products in a timely fashion, or at all, we may not be able to sell these products to our customers until we enter a similar arrangement with an alternative contract manufacturer. The Flex facility in China may be impacted by the ongoing trade dispute between the United States and China, by regulations implemented by the United States or China, or disruption caused by health pandemics, such as the coronavirus.
If we experience a problem with our supply of products from Flex, Plexus, or our other contract manufacturers, it may take us significant time to either manufacture the product or find an alternate contract manufacturer, which could result in substantial expense and disruption to our business.
We have also outsourced certain general and administrative functions to reputable service providers, many of which are in foreign countries, sometimes impacting communication with them because of language and time differences. Their presence in foreign countries also increases the risk they could be exposed to political risk. Additionally, there may be difficulties encountered in coordinating the outsourced operations with existing functions and operations. If we fail in successfully coordinating and managing the outsourced service providers, it may cause an adverse effect on our operations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
 
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Our business may suffer if we are unable to attract and retain key employees.
Competition for employees with skills we require is intense in the high technology industry. Our success will depend on our ability to attract and retain key technical employees. The loss of one or more key or other employees, a decrease in our ability to attract additional qualified employees, or the delay in hiring key personnel could each have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our operations, and the operations of our customers and suppliers, are subject to risks of natural catastrophic events, widespread health epidemics, acts of war, terrorist attacks and the threat of domestic and international terrorist attacks, any one of which could result in cancellation of orders, delays in deliveries or other business activities, or loss of customers and could negatively affect our business and results of operations.
Our business is international in nature, with our sales, service and administrative personnel and our customers and suppliers located in numerous countries throughout the world. Our operations, and those of our customers and suppliers, are subject to disruption for a variety of reasons, including work stoppages, acts of war, terrorism, health epidemics, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, energy shortages, telecommunication failures, tsunamis, flooding or other natural disasters. Such disruption could materially increase our costs and expenses as well as cause delays in, among other things, shipments of products to our customers, our ability to perform services requested by our customers, or the installation and acceptance of our products at customer sites. Any of these conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property (“IP”) and Cybersecurity
Third parties may claim we are infringing their intellectual property and we could suffer significant litigation costs, licensing expenses or be prevented from selling our products.
We have been sued for patent infringement in the past and receive notifications from time to time that we may be in violation of patents held by others. An assertion of patent infringement against us, if successful, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to sell our products or it could force us to seek a license to the intellectual property rights of others or alter such products so that they no longer infringe the intellectual property rights of others. A license could be very expensive to obtain or may not be available at all. Similarly, changing our products or processes to avoid infringing the rights of others may be costly or impractical. Additionally, patent litigation could require a significant use of management resources and involve a lengthy and expensive defense, even if we eventually prevail. If we do not prevail, we might be forced to pay significant damages, obtain licenses, modify our products, or stop making our products; each of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, operating results or cash flows.
If we are unable to protect our IP, we may lose a valuable asset or may incur costly litigation to protect our rights.
We protect the technology that is incorporated in our products in several ways, including through patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret protection and by contractual agreement. However, even with these protections, our IP may still be challenged, invalidated or subject to other infringement actions. While we believe that our IP has value in the aggregate, no single element of our IP is in itself essential. If a significant portion of our IP is invalidated or ineffective, our business could be materially adversely affected.
A breach of our operational or security systems could negatively affect our business and results of operations.
We rely on various information technology networks and systems to process, transmit and store electronic information, including proprietary and confidential data, and to carry out and support a variety of business activities, including manufacturing, research and development, supply chain management, sales and accounting. We have experienced several attempted cyber-attacks of our network. None of the attempted attacks has caused a
 
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disruption to our operations or had a material adverse effect on our business or financial results. As a result of the attempts, we have taken further preventive security measures to protect our systems. Despite these preventative security measures we have implemented, we may continue to be vulnerable to attempts by third parties to gain unauthorized access to our networks or sabotage our systems. These attempts, which might be related to criminal hackers, industrial espionage or state-sponsored intrusions, include trying to covertly introduce malware to our computers, networks and systems and impersonating authorized users. In addition, third party suppliers and service providers that we rely on to manage our networks and systems and process and store our proprietary and confidential data may also be subject to similar attacks. Such attempts could result in the misappropriation, theft, misuse, disclosure or loss or destruction of the intellectual property, or the proprietary, confidential or personal information, of Teradyne or our employees, customers, suppliers or other third parties, as well as damage to or disruptions in our information technology networks and systems. These threats are constantly evolving, thereby increasing the difficulty of defending against them or implementing adequate preventative measures. While we seek to detect and investigate all security incidents and to prevent their recurrence, attempts to gain unauthorized access to our information technology networks and systems may be successful, and in some cases, we might be unaware of an incident or its magnitude and effects. For example, we recently became aware that one of our vendors providing IT infrastructure management software,
SolarWinds
Corporation, had been compromised by cyber-attacks. Although we have not identified any compromise of our IT systems due to the use of
SolarWinds
software to date, we continue to monitor our network for any potential impact related to the
SolarWinds
cyber-attack. A failure in or a breach of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of our suppliers and other service providers, including as a result of the
SolarWinds
or any other cyber-attacks, could have a material adverse effect on our business or financial results, disrupt our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of proprietary or confidential information, damage our reputation, cause losses and increase our costs. We expect to continue to devote significant resources to the security of our information technology networks and systems.
A breach of the security of our products could negatively affect our business and results of operations.
We may be subject to security breaches of certain of our products caused by viruses, illegal
break-ins
or hacking, sabotage, or acts of vandalism by third parties or our employees or contractors. A breach of our product security systems could have a material adverse effect on our business or financial results, disrupt our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of proprietary or confidential information, damage our reputation, cause losses, and increase our costs. We expect to continue to devote significant resources to the security of our products.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Compliance
The implementation of tariffs on our products may have a material impact on our business.
Our business operations and supply chain are global and may be disrupted by the implementation of tariffs.
In 2018, the United States Trade Representative imposed a 25% tariff on many lists of products, including certain Teradyne products that are made in China and imported into the United States. We have implemented operational changes that mitigate the impact of the 25% tariff on the import of our impacted products into the United States. As a result, the existing tariff has not had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. The implementation of additional tariffs by the United States could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition to the actions taken by the United States, China has implemented retaliatory tariffs on products made in the United States and imported into China, including certain Teradyne products. We have implemented, if appropriate, operational changes that would mitigate the impact of the retaliatory tariffs. However, notwithstanding our efforts, the retaliatory tariffs or other trade restrictions implemented by China could disrupt our business operations, sales and supply chain and, therefore, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
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Trade regulations and restrictions impact our ability to sell products to and support certain customers, which may materially adversely affect our sales and results of operations.
We are subject to U.S. laws and regulations that limit and restrict the export of some of our products and services and may restrict our transactions with certain customers, business partners and other persons. In certain circumstances, export control and economic sanctions regulations prohibit the export of certain products, services and technologies, and in other circumstances we may be required to obtain an export license before exporting the controlled item. We must also comply with export restrictions and laws imposed by other countries affecting trade and investments. We maintain an export compliance program but there are risks that the compliance controls could be circumvented, exposing us to legal liabilities. Compliance with these laws has not significantly limited our sales but could significantly limit them in the future. Changes in, and responses to, U.S. trade policy could reduce the competitiveness of our products and cause our sales to drop, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In 2018, the United States Department of Commerce announced that it has commenced a review of new export controls focusing on emerging and foundational technologies. The new export controls could cover technologies used in one or more Teradyne products and therefore could impact the sales of certain Teradyne products.
The U.S. government from time to time has issued export restrictions that prohibit U.S. companies from exporting U.S. manufactured products, foreign manufactured products with more than 25% controlled U.S. content, as well as U.S. origin technology. For example, the U.S. Department of Commerce has restricted the access of U.S. origin technologies to certain Chinese companies by adding those companies to the Entity List under U.S. Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”).
On May 16, 2019, Huawei and 68 of its affiliates, including HiSilicon, were added to the U.S. Department of Commerce Entity List under the EAR. This action by the U.S. Department of Commerce imposes new export licensing requirements on exports,
re-exports,
and
in-country
transfers of all U.S. regulated products, software and technology to the designated Huawei entities. While most of our products are not subject to the EAR and therefore not affected by the Entity List restrictions, certain of our products are currently manufactured in the U.S. and thus subject to the Entity List restrictions. The addition of Huawei entities, including HiSilicon, to the Entity List in May 2019 did not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
On August 17, 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce published final regulations expanding the scope of the U.S. EAR to include additional products that would become subject to export restrictions relating to Huawei entities including HiSilicon. These new regulations restrict the sale to Huawei and the designated Huawei entities of certain
non-U.S.
made items, such as semiconductor devices, manufactured for or sold to Huawei entities including HiSilicon under specific, detailed conditions set forth in the new regulations. These new regulations have impacted our sales to Huawei, HiSilicon and their suppliers. We are taking appropriate actions, including filing license applications and obtaining licenses from the U.S. Department of Commerce as well as working with the U.S. regulators to clarify the scope of the restrictions. However, we cannot be certain that the actions we take will mitigate the risks associated with the new export controls that impact our business. It is uncertain the extent these new regulations and any other additional regulations that may be implemented by the U.S. Department of Commerce or other government agency may have on our business and financial results. Also, our controls related to Entity List compliance could be circumvented, exposing us to legal liabilities. Even if such restrictions are lifted, any financial or other penalties or continuing export restrictions imposed on Huawei could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
On April 28, 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce published new export control regulations for certain U.S. products and technology sold to military end users or for military end-use in China, Russia and Venezuela. The definition of military end user is broad. The regulations went into effect on June 29, 2020. In December 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued a list of companies in China and other countries that it considered to be military end users. We do not expect that compliance with the new export controls will
 
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significantly impact our ability to sell products to our customers in China or to manufacture products in China. The new export controls, however, could disrupt our supply chain, increase our compliance costs and impact the demand for our products in China and, thus, have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, while we maintain an export compliance program, our compliance controls could be circumvented, exposing us to legal liabilities. We will continue to assess the potential impact of the new export controls on our business and operations and take appropriate actions, including filing for licenses with the U.S. Department of Commerce, to minimize any disruption. However, we cannot be certain that the actions we take will mitigate all the risks associated with the new export controls that may impact our business.
In response to the regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Chinese government has passed new laws, including blocking legislation, which may impact our business activities in China. The Company is assessing the potential impact of these new Chinese laws and monitoring relevant laws and regulations issued by the Chinese government. The impact of these new Chinese laws on our business activities in China remains uncertain at this time.
We may be subject to product recalls and warranty and product liability claims.
We invest significant resources in the design, manufacture and testing of our products. However, we may discover design or manufacturing defects in our products after they have been shipped and, as a result, we may incur development and remediation costs and be required to settle warranty and product liability claims. In addition, if any of our products contain defects or have reliability, quality or safety issues, we may need to conduct a product recall which could result in significant repair or replacement costs and substantial delays in product shipments and may damage our reputation which could make it more difficult to sell our products. Any of these results could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We may incur significant liabilities if we fail to comply with environmental regulations.
We are subject to both domestic and international environmental regulations and statutory strict liability relating to the use, storage, discharge, site cleanup and disposal of hazardous chemicals used in our manufacturing processes. If we fail to comply with present and future regulations, or are required to perform site remediation, we could be subject to future liabilities or cost, including penalties or the suspension of production. Present and future regulations may also:
 
 
 
restrict our ability to expand facilities;
 
 
 
restrict our ability to ship certain products;
 
 
 
require us to modify our operations logistics;
 
 
 
require us to acquire costly equipment; or
 
 
 
require us to incur other significant costs and expenses.
Pursuant to present regulations and agreements, we are conducting groundwater and subsurface assessment and monitoring and are implementing remediation and corrective action plans for facilities located in Massachusetts and New Hampshire which are no longer conducting manufacturing operations. As of December 31, 2020, we have not incurred material costs as a result of the monitoring and remediation steps taken at the Massachusetts and New Hampshire sites.
The directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (the “RoHS Directive”) and the directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (the “WEEE Directive”) altered the form and manner in which electronic equipment is imported, sold and handled in the European Union. Other jurisdictions, such as China, have followed the European Union’s lead in enacting legislation with respect to hazardous substances and waste removal. Ensuring compliance with the RoHS Directive, the WEEE Directive and similar legislation in other jurisdictions, and integrating compliance activities
 
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with our suppliers and customers could result in additional costs and disruption to operations and logistics and thus, could have a negative impact on our business, operations or financial condition.
We currently are, and in the future may be, subject to litigation or regulatory proceedings that could have an adverse effect on our business.
From time to time, we may be subject to litigation or other administrative, regulatory or governmental proceedings, including tax audits and resulting claims that could require significant management time and resources and cause us to incur expenses and, in the event of an adverse decision, pay damages or incur costs in an amount that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
We may face risks associated with shareholder activism.
We may become subject to campaigns by shareholders advocating corporate actions such as financial restructuring, increased borrowing, special dividends, stock repurchases or divestitures. Such activities could interfere with our ability to execute our business plans, be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations, divert the attention of management, or result in our initiating borrowing or increasing our share repurchase plan or dividend, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business or stock price.
Provisions of our charter and
by-laws
and Massachusetts law may make a takeover of Teradyne more difficult.
There are provisions in our basic corporate documents and under Massachusetts law that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control, even if a change in control may be regarded as beneficial to some or all of our stockholders.
 
Item 1B:
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
 
Item 2:
Properties
Our corporate headquarters is located in North Reading, Massachusetts in buildings that we own consisting of approximately 422,000 square feet. We conduct manufacturing, engineering, sales and marketing, service, corporate administration and other operations in many locations worldwide. We own approximately 600,000 square feet and lease over 1,500,000 square feet of office space for these operations. We believe our existing facilities and planned expansions noted below are adequate to meet our current and reasonably foreseeable requirements. We regularly evaluate our expected facility needs and periodically make adjustments based on these evaluations. In 2020, we purchased land in San Jose, Costa Rica primarily for our Semiconductor Test and System Test operations. The new building of approximately 110,000 square feet is expected to be completed in 2021. We have purchased land in Denmark and plan to build a new building over the next two years for our Industrial Automation operations.
 
Item 3:
Legal Proceedings
We are subject to legal proceedings, claims and investigations that arise in the ordinary course of business such as, but not limited to, patent, employment, commercial and environmental matters. We believe that we have meritorious defenses against all pending claims and intend to vigorously contest them. While it is not possible to predict or determine the outcomes of any pending claims or to provide possible ranges of losses that may arise, we believe the potential losses associated with all of these actions are unlikely to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
 
Item 4:
Mine Safety Disclosure
Not Applicable.
 
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PART II
 
Item 5:
Market for Registrant
s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “TER.” As of February 16, 2021, there were approximately 1,362 holders of record of shares of our common stock.
See “Item 7: Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” for information on the frequency and amounts of our quarterly cash dividends, equity compensation plans and performance graph.
The following table includes information with respect to repurchases we made of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2020 (in thousands except per share price):
 
Period
 
(a) Total

Number of

Shares

(or Units)

Purchased
 
 
(b) Average

Price Paid per

Share (or Unit)
 
 
(c) Total Number of

Shares (or Units)

Purchased as Part of

Publicly Announced

Plans or Programs
 
 
(d) Maximum Number

(or Approximate Dollar

Value) of Shares (or

Units) that may Yet Be

Purchased Under the

Plans or Programs
 
September 28, 2020 – October 25, 2020
 
 
1
 
 
$
79.59
 
 
 
—  
 
 
$
911,535
 
October 26, 2020 – November 22, 2020
 
 
2
 
 
$
89.70
 
 
 
—  
 
 
$
911,535
 
November 23, 2020 – December 31, 2020
 
 
—  
 
 
$
116.15
 
 
 
—  
 
 
$
911,535
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
3
(1) 
 
$
90.74
(1) 
 
 
—  
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
(1)
Includes approximately three thousand shares at an average price of $90.74 withheld from employees for the payment of taxes.
We satisfy U.S. federal and state minimum withholding tax obligations due upon the vesting and the conversion of restricted stock units into shares of our common stock, by automatically withholding from the shares being issued, a number of shares with an aggregate fair market value on the date of such vesting and conversion that would satisfy the minimum withholding amount due.
 
Item 6:
Selected Financial Data
Teradyne has early adopted the amendment to Regulation
S-K
Item 301, which became effective on February 10, 2021.
 
Item 7:
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Overview
We are a leading global supplier of automation equipment for test and industrial applications. We design, develop, manufacture and sell automatic test systems used to test semiconductors, wireless products, data storage and complex electronics systems in many industries including consumer electronics, wireless, automotive, industrial, computing, communications, and aerospace and defense industries. Our industrial automation products include collaborative robotic arms, autonomous mobile robots (“AMRs”) and advanced robotic control software used by global manufacturing, logistics and light industrial customers to improve quality, increase manufacturing and material handling efficiency and decrease manufacturing and logistics costs. Our automatic test equipment and industrial automation products and services include:
 
 
 
semiconductor test (“Semiconductor Test”) systems;
 
 
 
storage and system level test (“Storage Test”) systems, defense/aerospace (“Defense/Aerospace”) test instrumentation and systems and circuit-board test and inspection (“Production Board Test”) systems (collectively these products represent “System Test”);
 
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wireless test (“Wireless Test”) systems; and
 
 
 
industrial automation (“Industrial Automation”) products.
The market for our test products is concentrated with a limited number of significant customers accounting for a substantial portion of the purchases of test equipment. A few customers drive significant demand for our test products both through direct sales and sales to the customers’ supply partners. We expect that sales of our test products will continue to be concentrated with a limited number of significant customers for the foreseeable future.
We have grown our Industrial Automation business through acquisitions, including Mobile Industrial Robots A/S (“MiR”), a leading maker of collaborative autonomous mobile robots (“AMRs”) for industrial applications, in 2018 and AutoGuide, LLC (“AutoGuide”), a maker of high payload AMRs, in 2019. The market for our industrial automation products is dependent on the adoption of new automation technologies by large manufacturers as well as small and medium enterprises (SMEs) throughout the world. In 2020, our Industrial Automation businesses were negatively impacted by the global industrial downturn as well as the
COVID-19
pandemic.
In 2020, revenue in our test businesses exceeded our plan as a result of Semiconductor Test demand by our largest customer, early 5G test investments and strength in our System Test businesses. The revenue of our Industrial Automation business was below our plan. In 2021, we expect strong momentum in our test businesses and return to growth for Industrial Automation.
Our strategy is to focus on profitably growing market share in our test businesses the introduction of differentiated products that target growth segments, and accelerating growth through continued investment in our Industrial Automation businesses. We plan to execute on our strategy while balancing capital allocations between returning capital to our shareholders through dividends and stock repurchases and using capital for with opportunistic acquisitions.
Impact of the
COVID-19
Pandemic on our Business
The novel coronavirus
(COVID-19)
pandemic has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures in an effort to contain the spread of the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, limitations on gatherings or social distancing requirements, quarantines,
shelter-in-place
orders, and business limitations and shutdowns. These measures have impacted our
day-to-day
operations and disrupted our business, workforce and operations, as well as the operations of our customers, contract manufacturers and suppliers. We are continuing to monitor the rapidly evolving situation regarding the
COVID-19
pandemic and the availability and impact of vaccinations. However, we are unable to accurately predict the full impact of
COVID-19,
which will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with accuracy, including, but not limited to, any new surges in areas where we do business, the availability of vaccinations, any further government actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume.
Health and Safety
In response to the
COVID-19
pandemic, we have taken proactive, aggressive action to protect the health and safety of our employees, customers, contract manufacturers and suppliers and we have complied with all government orders around the globe. The spread of
COVID-19
has caused us to modify our business practices, including implementing social distancing protocols, suspending employee travel, requiring most employees to work remotely, cancelling physical participation in meetings, and extensively and frequently disinfecting our workspaces. Around the world, the majority of our employees are working from home. However, some of our engineering, operations, supply line and customer support teams must be
on-site
at our or our customers’
 
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facilities. We are providing those
on-site
employees with the necessary protective resources and procedures to minimize their exposure risk. We may take further actions as may be required or recommended by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, contract manufacturers and suppliers.
Operations
We believe the
COVID-19
pandemic, and the numerous measures implemented by authorities in response, has adversely impacted our results of operations, including by increasing costs and decreasing demand in our Industrial Automation businesses, but we cannot accurately estimate the amount of the impact to our 2020 financial results or to our future financial results. In addition, the pandemic has disrupted our contract manufacturers and suppliers, and has resulted in some instances in short-term cost increases to meet customer demand. While the duration and severity of the pandemic may further impact our workforce and operations, as well as those of our customers, contract manufacturers and suppliers, we expect that our manufacturing facilities will remain operational, at sufficient capacity to support production demand. We are monitoring our operations closely in an effort to avoid any potential productivity loss caused by responses to the
COVID-19
pandemic.
Supply
We have not experienced any significant impacts or interruptions to our supply chain as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic. However, our suppliers have faced and may continue to face difficulties maintaining operations in light of government-ordered restrictions, including social distancing requirements and
shelter-in-place
mandates. Our supply chain team, and our suppliers, overcame numerous supply, production, and logistics obstacles in 2020, but there is no assurance we or they will be able to do so in the future. Although we regularly monitor the financial health of companies in our supply chain, financial hardship on our suppliers or
sub-suppliers
caused by the
COVID-19
pandemic could disrupt our ability to obtain components required to manufacture our products, adversely affecting our operations and in some instances result in higher costs and delays, both for obtaining components and shipping finished goods to customers, which could harm our profitability, make our products less competitive, or cause our customers to seek alternative suppliers.
Demand
The
COVID-19
pandemic has significantly increased economic uncertainty in our markets. Demand for our Test products was strong throughout 2020. While there was incremental softening in the automotive sector in 2020, there was strengthening demand in mobility, 5G, and memory test. Our Industrial Automation business, however, experienced a significant decline in demand through first half of 2020 due to
COVID-19
related shutdowns affecting global manufacturing but demand recovered in the second half of 2020 from the low point in the second quarter. The
COVID-19
pandemic could cause further global economic disruption that could cause demand for our products to decline, which would adversely affect our business.
Liquidity
Although there is continued uncertainty related to the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic on our future results, we believe our business model and our current cash reserves leave us well-positioned to manage our business through this crisis. We have a strong balance sheet as well as an operating model that we believe is capable of flexing up and down with extreme demand swings while still remaining profitable. Based on our analysis, we believe our existing balances of cash and cash equivalents and our currently anticipated operating cash flows will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs and other capital and liquidity requirements for the next twelve months. However, due to the uncertainty related to the future impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic,
 
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in order to bolster our liquidity position, on May 1, 2020 we entered into a credit agreement providing for a three-year, senior secured revolving credit facility of $400 million as further described in Note J: “Debt.” As of February 22, 2020, we have not borrowed any funds under the credit facility.
We are continuing to monitor the evolving situation regarding the
COVID-19
pandemic, the availability of vaccinations where we do business and guidance from government authorities around the world. In these circumstances, there may be developments outside our control requiring us to adjust our operating plan. As a result, given the uncertain nature of this situation, we are not able to accurately predict the full extent of the impact of
COVID-19
on our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, or cash flows in the future. In addition, see Part II—Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” included herein for updates to our risk factors regarding risks associated with the
COVID-19
pandemic.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We have identified the policies discussed below as critical to understanding our business and our results of operations and financial condition. The impact and any associated risks related to these policies on our business operations is discussed throughout Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations where such policies affect our reported and expected financial results.
Due to
the COVID-19
pandemic, there has been uncertainty and disruption in the global economy and our markets. We are not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require an update to our estimates or judgments or a revision of the carrying value of our assets or liabilities as of February 22, 2021, the date of issuance of this Annual Report on
Form 10-K.
These estimates may change, as new events occur, and additional information is obtained. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
In accordance with ASC 606, “
Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASC 606”)
, we recognize revenues, when or as control is transferred to a customer. Our determination of revenue is dependent upon a five step process outlined below.
 
 
 
We account for a contract with a customer when there is written approval, the contract is committed, the rights of the parties, including payment terms, are identified, the contract has commercial substance and consideration is probable of collection.
 
 
 
We periodically enter into contracts with customers in which a customer may purchase a combination of goods and services, such as products with extended warranty obligations. We determine performance obligations by assessing whether the products or services are distinct from the other elements of the contract. In order to be distinct, the product or service must perform either on its own or with readily available resources and must be separate within the context of the contract.
 
 
 
We consider the amount stated on the face of the purchase order to be the transaction price. We do not have variable consideration which could impact the stated purchase price agreed to by us and the customer.
 
 
 
Transaction price is allocated to each individual performance obligation based on the standalone selling price of that performance obligation. We use standalone transactions when available to value each performance obligation. If standalone transactions are not available, we will estimate the standalone selling price through market assessments or cost plus a reasonable margin analysis. Any discounts from standalone selling price are spread proportionally to each performance obligation.
 
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In order to determine the appropriate timing for revenue recognition, we first determine if the transaction meets any of three criteria for over time recognition. If the transaction meets the criteria for over time recognition, we recognize revenue as the good or service is delivered. We use input variables such as hours or months utilized or costs incurred to determine the amount of revenue to recognize in a given period. Input variables are used as they best align consumption with benefit to the customer. For transactions that do not meet the criteria for over time recognition, we will recognize revenue at a point in time based on an assessment of the five criteria for transfer of control. We have concluded that revenue should be recognized when shipped or delivered based on contractual terms. Typically, acceptance of our products and services is a formality as we deliver similar systems, instruments and robots to standard specifications. In cases where acceptance is not deemed a formality, we will defer revenue recognition until customer acceptance.
Translation of
Non-U.S.
Currencies
The functional currency for all
non-U.S.
subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar, except for Universal Robots, MiR and Lemsys for which the local currency is its functional currency. All foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured on a monthly basis into the functional currency using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period. All foreign currency denominated
non-monetary
assets and liabilities are remeasured into the functional currency using historical exchange rates. Net foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from remeasurement are included in other (income) expense, net. For Universal Robots, MiR and Lemsys, assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period. Revenues and expense amounts are translated using an average of exchange rates in effect during the period. Translation adjustments are recorded within accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the balance sheet.
Retirement and Postretirement Plans
We recognize net actuarial gains and losses and the change in the fair value of the plan assets in our operating results in the year in which they occur or upon any interim remeasurement of the plans. We calculate the expected return on plan assets using the fair value of the plan assets. Actuarial gains and losses are generally measured annually as of December 31 and, accordingly, recorded during the fourth quarter of each year or upon any interim remeasurement of the plans.
In March 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU
2017-07,
“Compensation—Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and
Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost
.” We retrospectively adopted the new accounting guidance on presentation of net periodic pension costs and net periodic postretirement benefit costs in the first quarter of 2018. This guidance requires the service cost component of net benefit costs to be reported in the same line item in the consolidated statement of operations as other employee compensation costs. The
non-service
components of net benefit costs such as interest cost, expected return on assets, amortization of prior service cost, and actuarial gains or losses, are required to be reported separately outside of income or loss from operations. Following the adoption of this guidance, we continue to record the service cost component in the same line item as other employee compensation costs and the
non-service
components of net benefit costs such as interest cost, expected return on assets, amortization of prior service cost, and actuarial gains or losses are reported within other (income) expense, net.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost using a standard costing system which approximates cost based on a
first-in,
first-out
basis or net realizable value. On a quarterly basis, we use consistent methodologies to evaluate all inventories for net realizable value. We record a provision for both excess and obsolete inventory when such
 
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write-downs or write-offs are identified through the quarterly review process. The inventory valuation is based upon assumptions about future demand, product mix, and possible alternative uses.
Equity Incentive and Stock Purchase Plans
Stock-based compensation expense is based on the grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718, “
Compensation—Stock Compensation.
” Upon adoption of ASU
2016-09,
“Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting,”
in the first quarter of 2017, we made an accounting policy election to continue accounting for forfeitures by applying an estimated forfeiture rate and recognizing compensation costs only for those stock- based compensation awards expected to vest. In accordance with ASU
2016-09,
excess tax benefits or tax deficiencies are recognized as a discrete tax benefit or discrete tax expense to the current income tax provision in our consolidated statements of operations and are reported as cash flows from operating activities. All cash payments made to taxing authorities on the employees’ behalf for withheld shares are presented as financing activities on the statement of cash flows. In 2020, 2019 and 2018, we recognized a discrete tax benefit of $9.6 million, $4.9 million and $7.6 million, respectively, related to net excess tax benefit.
Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We performed the required assessment of positive and negative evidence regarding the realization of the net deferred tax assets in accordance with ASC 740, “
Accounting for Income Taxes.
” This assessment included the evaluation of scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, estimates of projected future taxable income and
tax-planning
strategies. Although realization is not assured, based on our assessment, we concluded that it is more likely than not that such assets, net of the existing valuation allowance, will be realized.
Investments
We account for our investments in debt and equity securities in accordance with the provisions of
ASC 320-10,
Investments—Debt and Equity Securities.
” On a quarterly basis, we review our investments to identify and evaluate those that have an indication of a potential other-than-temporary impairment. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is other-than-temporary include:
 
 
 
The length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than cost;
 
 
 
The financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer; and
 
 
 
The intent and ability to retain the investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
Investment in Other Companies
We account for investments in other companies at cost and evaluate for impairment or an indication of changes in fair value resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or similar investment of the same issuer on a quarterly basis.
Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU
2016-01,
Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic
825-10):
Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
” We adopted the new accounting
 
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guidance in the first quarter of 2018 using the modified retrospective approach. This guidance requires that changes in fair value of equity marketable securities be accounted for directly in earnings. Previously, the changes in fair value of equity marketable securities were recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income on the balance sheet. We continue to record realized gains in interest income and realized losses in interest expense. The adoption of this new accounting guidance increased the January 1, 2018 retained earnings balance by $3.1 million and decreased the accumulated other comprehensive income balance by the same amount.
Credit Losses
In June 2016, the FASB issued
ASU 2016-13,
“Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.” This standard introduced the expected credit losses methodology for the measurement of credit losses on financial assets that are not measured at fair value through net income and replaces the “incurred loss” model with an “expected credit loss” model that requires consideration of a broader range of information to estimate expected credit losses over the lifetime of the asset. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 on a modified retrospective basis. The adoption of
ASU 2016-13
did not have a material impact on our consolidated statement of operations, balance sheets, cash flows, or earnings per share.
Goodwill, Intangible and Long-Lived Assets
On January 26, 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued
ASU 2017-04,
“Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic
350): Simplifying the Accounting for Goodwill Impairment.”
The new guidance removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020, on a prospective basis. The adoption of
ASU 2017-04
did not have a material impact on the consolidated statement of operations, cash flows, or earnings per share. We assess goodwill for impairment at least annually in the fourth quarter, as of December 31, on a reporting unit basis, or more frequently, when events and circumstances occur indicating that the recorded goodwill may be impaired. Under
ASU 2017-04,
goodwill impairment will be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. All other goodwill impairment guidance will remain largely unchanged. Entities will continue to have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. The
same one-step
impairment test will be applied to goodwill at all reporting units, even those with zero or negative carrying amounts. Entities will be required to disclose the amount of goodwill at reporting units with zero or negative carrying amounts. No goodwill impairment was identified in 2020, 2019 and 2018.
We assess the impairment of intangible and long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors we consider important in the determination of an impairment include significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner that we use the acquired asset and significant negative industry or economic trends.
Business Combination
We recognize the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. The fair value of identifiable intangible assets is based on detailed cash flows valuations that use information and assumptions provided by management. We estimate the fair value of contingent consideration at the time of the acquisition using all pertinent information known to us at the time to assess the probability of payment of contingent amounts or through the use of a Monte Carlo simulation model. We allocate any excess purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed to goodwill. The assumptions used in the valuations for our acquisitions may differ materially from actual results depending on performance of the acquired businesses and other factors. While we believe the
 
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assumptions used were appropriate, different assumptions in the valuation of assets acquired and liabilities assumed could have a material impact on the timing and extent of impact on our statements of operations. Goodwill is assigned to reporting units as of the date of the related acquisition.
Results of Operations
Information pertaining to fiscal year 2018 results of operations, including a
year-to-year
comparison against fiscal year 2019, was included in our Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2019 under Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Position and Results of Operations,” which was filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020. This information is incorporated by reference herein.
The following table sets forth the percentage of total net revenues included in our consolidated statements of operations:
 
 
  
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
  
      2020      
 
 
      2019      
 
Percentage of revenues:
  
 
Revenues:
  
 
Products
  
 
86.2
 
 
82.3
Services
  
 
13.8
 
 
 
17.7
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total revenues
  
 
100.0
 
 
 
100.0
 
Cost of revenues:
  
 
Cost of products
  
 
37.1
 
 
 
34.1
 
Cost of services
  
 
5.7
 
 
 
7.5
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total cost of revenues (exclusive of acquired intangible assets amortization shown separately below)
  
 
42.8
 
 
 
41.6
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Gross profit
  
 
57.2
 
 
 
58.4
 
Operating expenses: